Nuclear Power stands on the fourth position as a resource of electricity among thermal, hydro and renewable energy. India has 21 nuclear reactors in seven operating nuclear power plants which have total nuclear power plant capacity of 5780 MW.
All Nuclear Power plants are operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India [NPCIL].
There are four under construction nuclear power plants in Kundankulam Atomic Power in Tamil Nadu, Kalpakkam Atomic Power Project in Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan Atomic Power Project in Rajasthan and Kakrapar Atomic Power Project in Gujarat.
This under construction power projects has capacity of generating 4300 MW.
There are also planned projects at Gorakhpur in Haryana, Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, Chutka in Madhya Pradesh, Mahi Banswara in Rajasthan and Kaiga in Karnataka. There are also some proposed sites in different areas of India.
All the 7 nuclear power plant took time to be get operated from the estimated time. Some got delayed due to the local villagers protest, lack of technology, mishap in plant etc.
Jaitapur nuclear power plant is the proposed power project and not yet confirmed. It is located at Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra and if the project is confirmed it will be the world’s largest nuclear power plant.
Tarapur Atomic Power Station, Maharashtra
Tarapur Atomic Power Station is India’s first and largest atomic power station. It is located near Boisar of Thane District of Maharashtra.
Tarapur Atomic Project was started in year 1962 and the plant started operating from year 1969. For the construction of the TAPS a contract was signed in between Government of India, United States and International Atomic Energy Agency.
There are total four power reactors in Tarapur Plant known as TAPS 1, 2, 3, 4. Initially TAPS 1 and 2 with Boiling Water Reactors were constructed by Bechtel and GE companies with capacity of 160 MW each.
Later on TAPS 3 and 4 with pressurized heavy water reactor was constructed by L&T and Gammon India with capacity of 540 MW each. TAPS 3 started operation from year 18 August, 2006 and TAPS 4 started operating from year 12 September, 2005.
Tarapur plant has total capacity of generating 1400MV.
Initially TAPS was constructed with two Boiling Water Reactor with capacity of 160 MW and later on constructed two pressurized heavy water reactor with capacity of 540 MW each. It generates 150 MW of electric power.
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, Rajasthan
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station is located at Rawatbhata of the state Rajasthan and is also known as Rawatbhata Atomic Power Station.
Rajasthan Atomic Power station (RAPS) construction was started in year 1963 and the plant started operation from year 1973.
Rajasthan Atomic Power Station is the second largest nuclear power plant in India. RAPS has total six pressurized heavy water reactor with total capacity of generating 3140 MW.
The first reactor which started operating from year 1973 with Canadian assistance has total capacity of 100 MW.
After the nuclear test at Pokharan in year 1974 Canadian removed their assistance. The second reactor without Canadian assistance started operating from year 1981 has capacity of 200 MW.
The third and fourth reactor started operating from year 2000, fifth and sixth reactor started operating from year 2010 and each has capacity of 220 MW.
Two new reactors 7 and 8 are under construction from year 2010 with capacity of 700 MW. Rajasthan plant has total capacity of generating 1180 MV.
Kaiga Atomic Power Station, Karnataka
Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is located at Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka. KAPS construction started in year 1989 and started operating from 16 November, 2000.
Kaiga Atomic Power station is the third largest nuclear power plant in India. KAPS has total four pressurized heavy water reactors with capacity of 220 MW each.
KAPS 1 was delayed due to the collapsing of the construction on 13th May, 1994 it was supposed to be completed before 1996 but till 1999 the construction was not completed KAPS 3 & KAPS 4 started operating from year 2010 with capacity of 220 MW each.
KAPS 5 & KAPS 6 is also waiting for the government approval to be started. The KAPS 4 is the 20th reactor of the India and has increased the nuclear capacity of India.
Kaiga plant has total capacity of generating 880MV.
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station, Gujarat
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) is situated at near Surat city of state Gujarat. Kakrapar Atomic Station was started constructing from year 1984 and started operating from 6 May, 1993.
KAPS initially started operating with two units of pressurized heavy water reactors with capacity of 220 MW each. KAPS was declared as the best performing pressurized heavy water reactor in year January 2003 by CANDU Group (COG).
KAPS 1 was shut down for 66 days due to the leakage in the cooling loop. KAPS 3 and KAPS 4 are under construction from year 2010 with capacity of 700 MW each and are estimated to be completed till 2016.
Kakrapar plant has total capacity of generating 440MV.
Narora Atomic Power Station, Uttar Pradesh
Narora Atomic Power Station is located at Bulandshahar District of Uttar Pradesh. Narora Atomic Power Station started operating from 1 January, 1991 and unit 2 started operating from year 1992.
Narora Plant has total 2 pressurized heavy water reactors with capacity of 220 MW each. NAPS is the first in Asia to receive as ISO-14001 certified atomic power station.
It also received Golden Peacock award for Environment preservation from World Environment Foundation. Narora plant has total capacity of generating 440MV.
Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station, Tamil Nadu
Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station is located at Kalpakkam south of Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Kalpakkam Atomic Power Station is also known as Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS).
MAPS construction started in year 1970 and started operating from 24 January, 1984. MAPS is the first indigenous constructed nuclear power station in India. MAPS has total two pressurized heavy water reactor with capacity of 220 MW each.
MAPS -2 started operating from year 1986. MAPS has the facility of nuclear power production, waste treatment and fuel processing including plutonium fuel fabrication for fast breeder reactors.
Kalpakkam plant has total capacity of generating 440MV.
Kundankulam Nuclear Power Plant, Tamil Nadu
Kundankulam Nuclear Power Plant is located Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. The construction of plant was started from 31 March, 2002 and started operating from year 2013.
It is first nuclear power plant to use the imported PWR technology. All the nuclear power plants in India use boiling water reactor or pressurized heavy water reactor.
But KNPP uses the Russian advanced technology of Pressurized water reactor called Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reactor(VVER).
This nuclear power plant also got delayed due to the 500 days local residents protest, supply of designs, equipments from Russia and the drawings. KNPP-1 has capacity of generating 1000 MW and is the 21st reactor of India.
KNPP-2 is still under construction and has also capacity of generating 1000 MW.
Below are the plants under construction:-
|Unit No.||Power station||Operator||State||Reactor Type||Capacity (MW)||Estd. date of Operation|
|7||Rajasthan||NPCIL||Rajasthan||Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor||700||Jun-16|
|8||Rajasthan||NPCIL||Rajasthan||Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor||700||Jun-16|
|3||Kakrapar||NPCIL||Gujarat||Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor||700||Jun-15|
|4||Kakrapar||NPCIL||Gujarat||Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor||700||Dec-15|
|Kalpakkam||Bhavini||Tamil Nadu||Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor||500|
There are also some planned and proposed projects at
- Kundankulam 3 & 4 in Tamil Nadu,
- Gorakhpur 1&2 in Haryana,
- Jaitapur 1 & 2 in Maharashtra,
- Chutka 1 & 2 in Madhya Pradesh,
- Kaiga 5 & 6 in Karnataka,
- Bheempur 1 &2 in Madhya Pradesh,
- Gorakhpur 1 & 2 in Haryana,
- Mahi Banswara 1&2 in Rajasthan,
- Kovvada 1 &2 in Andhra Pradesh,
- Kundankulam 5 &6 in Tamil Nadu,
- Mithi Virdi 1 & 2 in Gujarat,
- Kalpakkam 2 & 3 in Tamil Nadu,
- Kundankulam 7 &8 in Tamil Nadu,
- Haripur 1,2,3 & 4 in West Bengal
- Nizampatnam 1-6 in Andhra Pradesh
- and Rajouli in Bihar.